If you get your water from a private well, a water distribution structure is used to pump and convey your water from an underground source to your home.

This structure consists of several components, including plumbing, a pressurized storage tank, a control device such as a pressure switch to operate the components and, a pump and motor to draw the water into your home. The well pump and motor are critical elements in the system. Selecting the correct type and size pump depends on many factors including the aquifer depth, the distribution system, the pressure needed, the number and flow rate of fixtures as well as other factors. Standard electricity powers most residential pumps e. Alternative sources of energy can be used to power your system in a remote location including wind turbines, solar collectors, or fuel powered generators.

Let’s look the three types of well pumps used in most water distribution systems.

The Submersible Pump

Commonly used in drilled wells, the submersible well pump is usually a single unit housing both the pump and motor. It is typically about 3 1/2 inches in diameter, and the entire unit is 2 to 3 feet long. The pump is placed in the well below the water level. The well casing should be at least four inches in diameter, but submersible pumps are available to fit wells with a diameter as small as three inches.

Because submersible well pumps are located under the groundwater and below the frost line, it does not need frost protection and will not freeze. If replacement or repairs are necessary, the pump must be pulled up from the well. Submersible pumps are occasionaly used as a booster in pipes if the water must travel a long distance, and one pump is not sufficient.

Shallow and Deep-Well Jet Pumps

There are two different types of jet pumps each designed for a particular function. Shallow- well jet pumps are used when the water supply is close to the surface, less than 25 feet deep. Deep-well jet pumps are used when the water table is more than 25 feet below the surface and are effective at depths of up to 250 feet.

Jet pumps can also be used in wells that are less than three inches in diameter. The pump does not need to be below the water line and can be placed on top of the well or away from the wellhead in a pump house. Typically offering lower water pressure and yield than submersibles, jet pumps force water through a narrow cone shaped device called a venturi. The venturi creates a partial vacuum and sucks or draws water from the well as opposed to pumping.

Like the submersible, the jet well pump has few moving parts and produces an even flow. Both shallow and deep-well jet pumps can be located away from the well.

Centrifugal Pumps

The versatile and straightforward centrifugal well pump produces a smooth even water flow. It's maximum suction lift is 25 feet and has a maximum total lift of 300 feet. The rotating impeller develops a partial vacuum that provides the suction lift. The impeller increases the water velocity through your system, and a diffuser converts velocity to pressure. To begin operating, a centrifugal pump must be primed, and it is best used as a booster pump.

If you’re in the market for a new well pump, the best solution is to speak with a A & T Pump Service professional. We can help you determine the best option and size pump for your particular water well and groundwater conditions.

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